Bombs are falling on Kharkiv and Kyiv and Russia in what has become the largest and bloodiest conflict Europe has experienced since World War II. Roughly two thousand Ukrainians have been killed or wounded, somewhat fewer Russians, and hundreds of thousands will soon become refugees. President Vladimir Putin has surrounded Ukraine with 190,000 troops as an initial step in order to recreate Russia’s standing as a superpower and the old Soviet sphere of influence. This was not President Biden’s decision; he worked off the information given him by his staff and agencies. Everything short of sending troops is being used by the United States and its allies to halt the Russian invasion. That includes using proxies like Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to ship military hardware to Kyiv, immobilizing assets, blocking imports of semi-conductors, freezing oligarchs’ bank accounts , excluding Russia from SWIFT, and halting the Nord-Stream 2 gas line to Europe. These policies are stringent and hard-hitting, though their effectiveness is not guaranteed.